Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Top 10 India’s Indigenous Defense Weapons

Source:-Top 10 India’s Indigenous Defense Weapons Defending India is a humongous task our Armed Forces do every second. Our Men in Uniform make this possible every second through their efforts and out of the skin hard work. To do it efficiently they need a range of equipment for which a country is not self reliant, it means letting go the hard work of our men go in vain . India realised this late, but nevertheless has made a very impressive beginning. IADN brings you a list of such systems. 10. Dhanush Howitzer The first 155mm towed howitzer developed and manufactured by India is based on an earlier successful Bofors gun. But this gun has been upgraded with a 45 caliber gun and range extended to 38 kilometers. Capable of firing 3 rounds in 15 seconds and equipped with thermal sights this howitzer gives India a platform to work on better guns while also giving the Army some breathing space while a gun with bigger caliber is developed and it replaces the 105mm Light Field Guns.In trials it came out better by 25 percent than the bofors in parameters like range, accuracy, consistency, low and high angle of fire and shoot-and-scoot ability. 9. NAG ATGM A third generation Fire and Forget Anti Tank Missile developed by DRDO as a part of IGMDP and produced by BDL , India ,provides India a missile which can destroy enemy tanks from land or air with modern Composite Armours. Based on Infrared Imaging and mmW active radar homing and available in helicopter launched, vehicle launched and shoulder launched varients, this provides an all round solution to Indian Army’s anti tank needs. With a single hit probability of near 77% at a range of 4 kilometers, this missile means our enemies tank will not be able to escape the battlefields unscathed. For more details on NAG Anti tank missile 8. Piniaka MRBL Pinaka is a multiple rocket launcher produced in India and developed by DRDO for the Indian Army. The system has a maximum range of 40 km for Mark-I and 65 km for Mark-II and can fire a salvo of 12 HE rockets in 44 seconds, neutralising a target area of 3.9 km2. This Indian system is helping replace Indian Army its older GRAD MBRL system of soviet era. It can fire Fragmentation high explosive, Incendiary, Anti-Tank and Anti-Personnel minelettes and Anti-Tank bomblettes. 7. HAL Dhruv Developed and Manufactured by HAL, this Multirole Utility helicopter of India also known as Advanced Light Helicopter is in service with Indian Army, Navy, Air force, Coast Guard as well as BSF other than many foreign nations where it has been exported. Powered by two Shakti Turboshafts , this chopper has a range of over 800 kilometers and service ceiling of 20,000 feets. They are serving India from Siachen to Thar in transport to Anti Armour roles and are improving day by day as new technologies and systems are introduced. They have also been used to develop two armed varients capable of firing missiles , rockets and heavy machine guns. These helicopters have proved to be rugged , rough and tough machines which have now proved themselves in various missions and operations. 6. Akash Missile Akash , the Medium range surface to air missile developed in India is now paving way for Army and airforce to upgrade its air defence and that too with an Indian option. The missile system can target aircraft up to 30 km away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m.An on-board guidance system coupled with an actuator system makes the missile maneuverable up to 15g loads and a tail chase capability for end game engagement. It can neutralize aerial targets like fighter jets, cruise missiles and air-to-surface missiles as well as ballistic missiles.The heart of this missile is the Indian Rajendra PESA radar. Rajendra is a slewable passive phased array radar used for 3-D target detection, multi target tracking and multiple missile guidance under extreme hostile EW environment.It can track 64 targets in range, azimuth and height and guide eight missiles simultaneously in ripple fire mode towards four targets. Akash can fly at the speed of twice of Sound, means more than 2.5 mach speed.With the use of ramjet engines, Akash can maintain top speed at all altitudes and maneuverable in any altitudes. The entire flight can be controlled by the command control computer and the controller can order the missile self destruct in mid-air if missile was wrongly fired. For more details on Akash Missile 5. Arjun MBT Developed by CVRDE and DRDO, Arjun mk1 and its improved varient Mk2 are now being produced for Indian Army. It first proved itself when it outclassed T90 during comparative trails. Armed with a 120 mm Rifled Bore gun it can fire missiles , AFPSDS, HE and HEAT rounds to. Protected by Kanchan Armour and ERA it has survived direct hit be HESH and APFSDS rounds in trials by T72 tank. Powered by a 1400HP engine it can traverse length and breadth of Indian Landscape with very high mobility. 4. Risat RISAT (Radar Imaging Satellite) is a series of Indian radar imaging reconnaissance satellites built by ISRO. They provide all-weather surveillance using synthetic aperture radars (SAR). RISAT 1 uses a C band radar while RISAT 2 uses an X band radar. They provide all-weather earth observation and surveillance capabilities to Indian Armed forces. More such satellites are in the pipeline. 3. Tejas Designed by ADA and manufactured by HAL , Tejas a 4th generation lightweight multirole aircraft will be replacing Mig21s and Mig27s in Indian Air force service. Capable of firing BVR and WVR Air to Air missiles, air to ground missiles and guided and unguided munitions and bombs in addition capability to fire anti ship missiles, Tejas has an all round capability. Equipped with AESA , IRST and EW systems this will pack a punch much above its weight. 2. AGNI 5 The 5,500 Km Missile capable of delivering 1,500 kgs of conventional or nuclear warhead, it ensures India has every inch of its adversary’s territory under the cover of its strategic nuclear deterrence. Guided by Ring laser gyroscope and inertial navigation system, optionally augmented by GPS which helps the missile to attain single digit accuracy despite travelling at mach 24 at the terminal phase. With its unique capability to be transported by road or rail its capability to carry MIRVs guarantee India a second strike capability. 1. Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Shield It is a two tired ballistic missile defence system consisting of two missile namely PAD and AAD developed and tested by India. The Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) is an anti-ballistic missile developed to intercept incoming ballistic missiles outside the atmosphere (exo-atmospheric). Based on the Prithvi missile, PAD is a two-stage missile with a maximum interception altitude of 80 km (50 mi).Advanced Air Defence (AAD) is an anti-ballistic missile designed to intercept incoming ballistic missiles in the endo-atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (19 mi). There is a third missile named PDV in development which will intercept targets at 150 km altitude. This missile system has an heart named Swordfish. These missile systems coupled with the Swordfish Long Range Tracking Radar gives India a capability which only 3 other nations have.Swordfish is an Indian active electronically scanned array (AESA) long-range tracking radar specifically developed to counter ballistic missile threat. It has a range of over 1000 km for an object as small as a cricket ball. The post Top 10 India’s Indigenous Defense Weapons appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

IAI-HAL Unmanned Chetak UAV for Navy

Source:-IAI-HAL Unmanned Chetak UAV for Navy The IAI-HAL NRUAV project consists of a Malat-made Helicopter Modification Suite (HeMoS) fitted on HAL’s Chetan, an upgraded Chetak with Turbomeca TM 333 2M2 engines. The helicopter is planned to be used for unmanned operations and advanced intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions from warship decks. IAI-HAL NRUAV will feature automatic vertical Take-off and Landing (AVTOL) from aviation-capable ships and from unprepared landing sites. It is intended to be employed as anelevated mast, which will extend the vessel’s coverage over a much larger area, providing early warning and detection of aircraft, cruise missiles, surface vessels and even subsurface activities.It is planned to have an endurance of 6 hours and up to a distance of 120 km from the launching vessel. The project was initiated in late 2008, to be completed in 36-48 months with a budget of ₹1163 crore (US$171 million). The project is funded by the Indian Ministry of defense The NRUAV- Naval Rotary unmanned aerial vehicle project initiated early 2010 to meet the Indian Navy’s unmanned operation of maritime multi layered Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance missions from warships deck. The project entirely based on the HAL produced Chetak helicopters who is currently being used in tri-services. IAI known as the best in unmanned applications, with the support from IAI’s subsidiary MALAT the manned HAL Chetak becomes unmanned helicopter with improved ISR capabilities, which include a Maritime Multi mode radar in it’s belly and a Electro Optronics for automatic tracking and target range measurement. The Chetak operates same as like the American MQ 8 Fire scout UAV. The Chetak platform can be operated from almost all kind of Naval warships, which include Coast Guard OPV’s too. In the manned version using the helicopters for long time ISR mission makes human errors. this due to the heavy vibration and sea states. So making a unmanned system in the existing Chetak makes the Helicopter perform ISR mission for extra long time. Unlike the manned variant, The unmanned system comes with better sensor systems. The Chetak UAV can carry a maritime multi mode radar slated to be the modified variant of EL/M 2022 Radar. The EL/M 2022 used for Long range sea surveillance which increases the ships primary surveillance range, Anti submarine warfare capability, air to air mission which include detection of sea skimming missiles and weather applications. The actual range of EL/M 2022 is more than 200 kilometers. with the effective air borne system the Chetak also operates as a dedicated maritime patrol aircraft in theater applications, Such as fleet defense and forward fleet movements. The Radar also capable to take SAR images. with these unique capabilities, The warship off from the EEZ can easily detect and analyze threats. The Chetak UAV also carries a Electro Optronics pod for search and rescue mission. The EO system is IAI developed MOSP – Multi mission Optronic stabilized Payload. Which is used for identifying threats, and tracking it in real time, also used for Search and rescue operations for the possible current status of the mission. The Chetak UAV also comes with variety of EW and countermeasure systems developed by IAI. The system includes. communication and signal intelligence, plus Electronic support measure suites. The Chetak UAV is re designed to work in the operational altitude of 15,000 Feet, with the operational area of some 150 kilometer with six hours of loiter time. with the maximum speed of 100 knots. One benefit of the Chetak platform is the sheer numbers India has built, which Shory estimates are in the hundreds. This means there is a large pool of feedstock for the upgrade programme. The Chetak is based on the Airbus Helicopters Alouette III Shory declined to provide details on the flight control system the unmanned Chetak will have, or the type’s endurance. Shory adds that the story exemplifies IAI’s expertise in the areas of sensors, systems integration, and unmanned aircraft. Longer term, he says there will also be an opportunity to transform the newly developed Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) into an unmanned system. Most of the newer Indian warships can carry two helicopters, the main reason is to carry a Chetak UAV along with Naval Multi role helicopters. To increase the ships performance in future battles. The Chetak UAV can provide over the Horizon detection support to the Naval Ships. As per current status, The mission system supplier IAI, The helicopter producer HAL and the system integrator DRDO almost close to fly the system. However actual status of the Chetak UAV is remain classified. Source: Life of solider The post IAI-HAL Unmanned Chetak UAV for Navy appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

HAL Rudra :- India indigenously designed Attack Helicopter

Source:-HAL Rudra :- India indigenously designed Attack Helicopter The HAL Rudra also known as ALH-WSI is an armed version of HAL Dhruv. Rudra is equipped with Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Thermal Imaging Sights Interface, a 20 mm turret gun, 70 mm rocket pods, anti-tank guided missiles and air-to-air missiles. While flight testing the Light Combat Helicopter, a modified version of HAL Dhruv, the Indian Army came to the conclusion that without making any major modifications to the Dhruv air-frame, an armed variant can also be developed and delivered to the army quickly. This variant was named Rudra. The Rudra underwent integration trial for armament and electro-optical systems and a final round of weapon firing trials in September 2011, which included testing of the 20-mm turret gun. The 70 mm rockets and MBDA Mistral air-to-air missiles were tested in November 2011.The helicopter exceeded the payload and performance requirements at the height of 6 km. It has integrated sensors, weapons and electronic warfare suite, and uses an upgraded version of the glass cockpit used in the HAL Dhruv Mk-III. The sensors include stabilised day and night cameras, infrared imaging as well as laser ranging and designation. It has an Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS) from SAAB, with electronic warfare self-protection which is fully integrated into the glass cockpit. On-board self-defence systems include radar & missile detectors, IR jammer, chaff and flare dispensers. The helicopter can be used in both unarmed and armed roles that include reconnaissance, troop transport, anti-tank warfare and close air support. In September 2012, ground tests for the first production Rudra were completed. It featured a turret gun, rockets, air-to-air missiles and could carry air-to-ground missiles like the anti-tank helicopter-launched Nag. HAL was awarded with a combined order of 76 Rudras for the Indian army, the primary customer, and the Indian air force. It was reportedly that the weapons platforms and avionics of HAL Rudra and the under-development Light Combat Helicopter would be the same. Arming the Dhurv comes after Indian Army keep fighting for buying new fleet of attack helicopters for air cover, Even the armed Mi 17 v5 operated under the Air force, since Indian Army don’t have any attack helicopters. Army gets a better system for primary air cover to the ground forces. Currently Indian Army only have some Dhruv’s for troop transport and resupply. Army needs two version of modified helicopters, One for reconnaissance and SIGINT purpose, another for dedicated attack support. or by saying Mark III and Mark IV version of Dhurv. The Mark III incorporates reconnaissance hardware along with counter measure suites. The Indian Army Aviation operates some 20 such Mark III Dhruv’s. Interestingly the Mark 3 version comes with Indigenously made Sakthi engines, The engine was developed with the support of Safron, France. The same version who also powers the LCH and future variants of Dhurv’s. The same engine also used in the prototype version of Russian Ka 60 utility helicopters. The Sakthi is one of the known engine used by the Dhurv mark 3, 4 versions. The Mark IV has all the above specification along with weapon systems, A improved infrared jammer and helmet mounted pointing system. The obstacle avoidance system used in the Rudra used to alert the pilot, if the helicopter flying very closer to an nearby obstacle. The system alert the pilot about small size objects like Electricity power cables, telecom towers and close hills too. Rudra can be armed with 70mm unguided Rockets and missiles like Nag anti tank missile and French made mistral air to air missile. The Naval version comes with two light torpedo’s for anti shipping capability. During the Navy’s evaluation trails The Israeli Elbit’s target tracking system tracked surface ships at the range of 14 kilometers, and the IRST illustrated image quality good enough to read even the designation number of the Ship. Which impressed the Navy to adopt the Dhurv Mark III for coastal surveillance operations. However Navy not interested the WSI Dhruv. but the Mark 3 version. Rudra effectively used in Kashmir and Rajasthan during the Trails, which can be used to stop enemy adversaries, Same goes to Eastern sector too. The Indian Army aviation currently operating two Rudra’s. Which is deployed close to Kashmir. and the serial production rolling on HAL production line. Same like other projects lack of funds, man power and manufacturing items, Rudra running behind the schedule. Privatizing the Production line brings good number of output in coming years. The Air force, Army and Navy interested in the Armed variant of the Dhruv. Army already place some sixty units of Rudra, and Air force too order 16 units. However the orders can be increased along with export orders. Currently HAL produced only 27 units of both Mark III and Mark IV Variants. The post HAL Rudra :- India indigenously designed Attack Helicopter appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

Nirbhay Missile:- India’s Indigenuously Developed sub sonic long range cruise missile

Source:-Nirbhay Missile:- India’s Indigenuously Developed sub sonic long range cruise missile Nirbhay is a long range, subsonic cruise missile designed and developed in India by the Defence Research and Development Organisation. Nirbhay is an all-weather, low-cost, long-range cruise missile capable of carrying conventional and nuclear war heads. The missile has a range of more than 1000 km, weighs about 1500 kg and has a length of 6 metres.The missile is powered by a solid rocket booster for take off which is developed by Advanced Systems Laboratory(ASL). The missile utilizes a solid propellant booster motor that is jettisoned shortly after launch, switching over to a turbojet engine with a cruise speed of 0.65 Mach and a reported range of 800-1,000 km.3 The missile is guided by INS/GPS with an active-radar terminal seeker, and its accuracy could be improved both by the development of an indigenous Indian navigation satellite system4 and the potential of integrating the seeker from the BrahMos missile The missile can carry warheads ranging between 300 kg and 400 kg and a total of 24 types of warheads can be attached based on mission requirements. It can be launched from multiple platforms including aircraft, land-based vehicles/launchers, ships and submarines and shall be inducted into Indian Navy, Army, and Air Force. Nirbhay is a two-stage missile system with loitering capability. Nirbhay is equipped with ring-laser gyroscope for accurate strikes. Nirbhay can fly at extremely low altitudes, the missile is enabled with terrain hugging technology which effectively means the missile can fly in the tree levels. This method is instrumental in avoiding detection by enemy radar systems and can help in reducing the reaction time of the enemies. Nirbhay is capable of carrying both nuclear and conventional warheads. Initially Nirbhay will be launched from a mobile launcher which has been developed by Tata. Further development will guarantee the launch of Nirbhay from Aerial and Naval platforms. The missile will supplement the BrahMos with its extended range. The first test of the missile took place in February 2013, the test was a partial success as the missile was destroyed half way to its target after it showed diversion in its trajectory. The missile was again tested in October 2014, the missile delivered the package to the designated target flying flawlessly through the skies. Nirbhay is expected to enter service in less than three years. First Trail – 12th March 2013 – Failed – Missile destroyed in mid flight Second Trail – 17 October 2014 – Success – 100% performance Third trail – 16 October 2015 – Failed – Missile crashed Fourth test-December 21, 2016-Failed Update on Nirbhay programme? After two consecutive failures, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is gearing up for a fresh experimental trial of India’s first home-grown subsonic cruise missile Nirbhay with a hope that the weapon system this time will not let them down. Hectic preparations are underway at the Integrated Test Range (ITR) off Odisha coast as the missile has been scheduled for the test next week. It will be fifth launch of the missile in the last five years. “The launch window has been set for November 7 to 9. Final checks of the missile sub-systems are on and hopefully the missile will be ready for test in next two days. A team of experts are monitoring the launch preparations. We are planning for the launch on Tuesday,” said an official associated with the project. Once powered by a turbofan engine, Nirbhay will be tested using a turbojet engine for the first time. DRDO scientists are expecting a success this time as wing deployment and navigation software problems, detected during the pre-launch check-ups in May which led to its postponement, seem to have been rectified. Of four tests so far, three have been failed as the missile had achieved partial success during the second test in 2014. The first test flight conducted on March 12, 2013, was an utter failure as the missile crashed only after 20 minutes of flight and its remnants fell in an orchard in Jagatsinghpur district, about 150 km from the launch site. Nirbhay’s last trial conducted on December 21, 2016, was aborted midway as the missile changed its course. The missile project was mired in controversy after ‘The Express’ raised doubts on its outcome prior to third and fourth trials since it was pushed for test with faults in the flight control and navigation software. Integration of Nirbhay with Indian Airforce Aircrafts According to reports, DRDO is now working on integrating it with the fighter jet’s systems and developing the capability of launching from low altitudes, in order to minimize its visibility to radar. Nirbhay missile can use the Su-30MKI’s existing pylons that now carry the Brahmos missile. DRDO is considering Nirbhay missile to arm Tejas, a light fighter jet with a rocket “shortened” by about 25%. Nirbhay can be adapted for naval release by both a surface ship and submarines. It has a range of 1500 kms, weighs 1000 kgs, and its current engine is ramjet technology. Nirbhay missile design and development Nirbhay subsonic cruise missile was designed by DRDO’s aeronautical systems design division, Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), which is located at Bengaluru. Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL), based at Hyderabad, developed the weapon’s solid rocket motor booster and the Integration of the missile was carried out by DRDO’s Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune (R&DE). The projectile is designed to deliver similar loitering capabilities, control and guidance, as well as the accuracy and stealth capabilities of America’s Tomahawk and Pakistan’s Babur missiles. Nirbhay is an addition to the Indian arsenal, which includes BrahMos, a short-range supersonic cruise missile jointly developed by India and Russia. The first test-firing of Nirbhay was terminated midway after the missile deviated from the intended path. It was trialled a second time using a solid booster and a turbo-jet engine during the cruise phase. It took more than one hour and ten minutes for the first flight test mission to be completed from lift-off to final splash down. The propulsion was initially provided by booster motor while the turbofan engine powered the further flight. Stabilisation was given by wings, which were unfolded by commands from the onboard computer. The missile, carrying a dummy payload, reached a distance of 1,000km while maintaining accuracy of above 10m during its trajectory. The complete mission was tracked by indigenous telemetry stations and closely observed by an aircraft of the Indian Air Force. Nirbhay missile features “The missile has an operational range of approximately 1,000km and can cruise at a speed of Mach 0.8.” Nirbhay subsonic cruise missile has a length of 6m and a diameter of 0.5m, whilst it’s launch weight is approximately 1,500kg. The missile has an operational range of approximately 1,000km and can cruise at a speed of Mach 0.8. The weapon can carry warheads ranging between 300kg and 400kg. A total of 24 types of warheads can also be attached to the missile, based on the mission requirements A highly advanced inertial navigation system, which was indigenously developed by Research Centre Imarat (RCI), guides the weapon. The missile can reach flight altitudes 500m and 4km above the ground and can also fly at very low levels to avoid detection by enemy radar. Nirbhay has the capability to penetrate deep into the enemy territory and can engage targets with high-accuracy. It can also be launched from multiple platforms including aircraft, land-based vehicles/launchers, ships and submarines. The post Nirbhay Missile:- India’s Indigenuously Developed sub sonic long range cruise missile appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

India’s 2nd nuclear submarine ‘INS Aridhaman’ to be deadlier than INS Arihant

Source:-India’s 2nd nuclear submarine ‘INS Aridhaman’ to be deadlier than INS Arihant India’s Nuclear-Powered Ballistic Missile Submarine INS Arihant has cleared all deep sea and weapons firing trials and is waiting for clearance from the Indian Navy to be officially inducted into the force. It will soon join India’s underwater fleet and assume operational duties in service to the nation. INS Arihant will guarantee India a second strike nuclear capability against arch rivals China and Pakistan. It completes India’s Nuclear Triad, a capability that allows a country to launch a nuclear missile from Land, Air and Sea. INS Arihant has four vertical launch tubes, which can carry 12 (three per launch tube) smaller K-15 missiles or four larger K-4 missiles. The K-4 has a longer range of 3,500 km and has completed all trials. Advanced Technology Vessels (ATV) Project Constituted in the late 1980’s, the main aim of the project was to equip India with a second strike platform capable of launching retaliatory strikes against hostile states. India realized the significance of deterrence during the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, US in support of its ally Pakistan dispatched ‘Task force 74’ led by USS Enterprise into the Bay of Bengal to intervene in India’s fight for Bangladesh. Realizing the immense fire power the carrier group, India requested the intervention of Russia which dispatched its nuclear powered submarines to trial the task force. It was only for the interference of the Soviet’s the day was saved for India. Soon India setup the Advanced Technology Vessels (ATV) project with the sole purpose of constructing nuclear powered submarines which could carry nuclear tipped ballistic missiles. The exact events pertaining to the project was shrouded in secrecy and not much is known about the vessels constructed under the program. The project was cleared as a ‘black project’ and was put under direct control of the PMO. The project is believed to be cleared in the early 90’s and was accelerated soon after India successfully completed ‘Smiling Buddha’. The major hurdle in realizing the project was miniaturizing the nuclear reactor for powering the submarine. India’s leading atomic research organization, ‘BARC’ was put in charge of designing and fabricating a nuclear reactor to power the submarine. BARC designed, pressurized water reactor (PWR) using enriched uranium as fuel at its Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research Centre at Kalpakkam. The reactor was capable of producing 83 MW of power and was labelled ‘S-1’ and consisted of the reactor, control systems and the shielding tank, the reactor went critical on 11th November 2013. The state owned shipyard HSL, Vizag was put in charge of the project. The work on the submarine began at a fully enclosed dry dock at Vishakhapatnam. At the heart of the sub was a 83 MW PWR reactor and the sub itself was designed based on the Russian Akula class submarine. Leading private industries were also extensively involved in the project, L&T provided the hull, BEL and HEC was crucial in developing the reactor and shielding compartments, Tata power pitched in with its high end control systems. The lead vessel of the class ‘INS Arihant’ was launched on 25th July 2009 at Vishakhapatnam. Dedicating the submarine to the nation, PM openly acknowledged and lauded sustained Russian support for the program. The submarine then underwent an extensive fitting out process and by the late 2012 was then moved to docks for sustained harbour trials for system tests and validation. The submarine underwent repeated controlled submerged tests for hull pressure tests. The submarine was repeatedly put through extensive tests to analyse its high pressure capabilities. INS Aridhaman INS Aridhaman is the second Arihant-class submarine.She is the second nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine being built by India. She is being built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project to build nuclear submarines at the Ship Building Centre in Visakhapatnam. This submarine will have double the number of missile hatches than its predecessor INS Arihant giving it the ability to carry more missiles. This will have a more powerful reactor than its predecessor. What makes INS Aridhaman more deadlier than its predecessor INS Arihant ::: INS Aridhaman is the second nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine being built by India. She is being built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project to build nuclear submarines at the Ship Building Centre in Visakhapatnam. Even though the same class as INS Arihant, she will feature 8 launch tubes instead of the 4 giving her double the firepower of Arihant. Thus she could carry 24 K-15 Sagarika short range SLBMs or 8 K-4 long range SLBMs. She will also feature more powerful reactor than her predecessor. The boat will have a seven-blade propeller powered by a pressurised water reactor. She can achieve a maximum speed of 12–15 knots (22–28 km/h) on water surface and 24 knots (44 km/h) underwater. The submarine has eight launch tubes in its hump. She can carry up to 24 K-15 Sagarika missiles (each with a range of 750 km or 470 mi), or 8 of the under-development K-4 missiles (with a range of 3,500 km or 2,200 mi). INS Aridhaman will be fitted with the sonar ISS (Integrated Sonar Suite), state-of-the-art sonar developed by NPOL DRDO. It is a unified submarine sonar and tactical control system, which includes all types of sonar (passive, surveillance, ranging, intercept, obstacle avoidance and active). It also features an underwater communications system. The hull features twin flank-array sonars and Rafael broadband expendable anti-torpedo countermeasures. Engine and Performance The Arihant Class submarine will propelled by one seven-blade propeller which will be powered by a Pressurised Water Reactor(PWR) (nuclear). In a PWR, the primary coolant (water) is pumped under high pressure to the reactor core where it is heated by the energy generated by the fission of atoms. The heated water then flows to a steam generator where it transfers its thermal energy to a secondary system where steam is generated and flows to turbines which, in turn, spin an electric generator. The submarine can achieve a maximum speed of 12-15 knots (22-28 km/h) when on surface and 24 Knots (44 km/h) when submerged.The depth to which submarine will be submerged is from 300m to 400m. Sensors and Processing System INS Aridhaman will be fitted with sonar ISS (Integrated Sonar Suite),State-of-art sonar integrated sonar system USHUS sonar developed by Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL) of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), India. The submarine will also have Panchendriya sunar which is a unified submarine sonar and tactical control system, and it includes all types of sonar (passive, surveillance, ranging, intercept, obstacle avoidance and active).It is used for detecting and tracking enemy submarines, surface vessels, and torpedoes and can be used for underwater communication and avoiding obstacles. The hull features twin flank-array sonars and Rafael broadband expendable anti-torpedo countermeasures. Armament INS Aridhaman has eight launch tubes in its hump.It can carry up to 24 K-15 Sagarika missile each with a range of 750 km (470 mi) or 8 of the under-development k-4 missiles SLBM (with a range of 3,500 km (2200 mi).The submarine also integrated with 6 torpedo tubes of 21” (533 mm). Launch of INS Aridhaman ::: This is one of India’s top secret military projects and hence there are absolutely no reports on the progress of the construction of this deadly nuclear submarine. All we know is that INS Aridhaman after clearing all trials will dominate the Indian Ocean by the end of 2018, if all goes as per schedule. Reportedly Aridhaman is currently undergoing outfitting at Shipbuilding Centre (SBC) in Visakhapatnam. The post India’s 2nd nuclear submarine ‘INS Aridhaman’ to be deadlier than INS Arihant appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

HAL AMCA India’s fifth generation fighter update

Source:-HAL AMCA India’s fifth generation fighter update Image credit to aermech.in Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) is an Indian programme of a fifth-generation fighter aircraft. It is being developed by an aerospace industry team which consist of Aeronautical Development Agency as a design firm and to be manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). It is a single-seat, twin-engine, stealth supermaneuverable all weather multirole fighter aircraft. Unofficial design work on the AMCA started in 2008 with official work started in 2011 and completed in 2014. In 2008 Indian Navy joined the programme for the naval variant optimized for the aircraft carriers operation. The first flight is scheduled to occur in 2023–2024. It is a multirole combat aircraft designed for the air superiority, ground attack, bombing, intercepting, Strike and other types of roles. It combines supercruise, stealth, AESA radar, maneuverability, and advanced avionics to overcome and suppress previous generation fighter aircraft along with many ground and maritime defences. The broad requirements outlined for the AMCA are to incorporate a high degree of stealth, a high internal and external weapons payload, high internal fuel capacity, and the ability to swing from an air-to-air role to air-to-ground. It is also expected to have the ability to super cruise. This allows the aircraft to travel at supersonic speeds with greater endurance as the afterburners do not have to be used with the additional fuel usage. Even though future air combat has been envisaged as being beyond visual range excluding the likelihood of aerial dogfights as before, the AMCA is expected to sport a thrust vectoring engine. The ADA is designed the AMCA as a platform with high survivability, to meet the challenges of future air defense environments through a combination of moderate stealth, electronic warfare capability, sensors and kinetic performance. The design philosophy seeks to balance aerodynamics and stealth capabilities. The aircraft will have a weight of 16-18 tons. 16-18 tons with 2-tons of internal weapons and 4-tons of internal fuel. Combat ceiling will be 15-km, max speed of 1.8-Mach at 11-km. The AMCA will be powered by 2 x 90KN engines with vectored nozzles. Currently more than 4000 employers assigned into the AMCA project,where they extracted from ADA, DRDO, HAL and some other leading private companies. The AMCA team identified three major technical works. Which are Thrust vectoring, super cruise Engines, Active radar’s and other processing system and the radar absorbent material. Engine India asks for a joint development of fifth generation engines with foreign nations. It’s reported India might need more than 2000 plus Engines for AMCA. India already has initiated a Engine project named Kaveri. India wants the new engine who powers the AMCA must be based on the Kaveri. In response many foreign nations responded for the Joint Engine development program. Currently three countries tries to seal the AMCA engine development program. US, France and England offers their known engine companies like General Electric, Snecma and Rolls Royce respectively. GE from America offered engine development based on the F 414 engine, and the Snecma announced the M 88 engine who powers the Rafale and the Rolls Royce also offered the EJ 200 engine for joint development with Kaveri. As per last known reports, US company General Electric leads in the program. who already supplying F 404 engines for LCA Tejas. GE also set ups manufacturing plants in India to produce aviation engines in India. Airframe AMCA will use carbon-fibre composites (C-FC), and titanium alloy steels for construction. The AMCA would employs C-FC materials for up to 80% of its airframe by weight, including in the fuselage (doors and skins), wings (skin, spars and ribs), elevons, tailfin, rudder, air brakes and landing gear doors. Composite materials are used to make an aircraft both lighter and stronger at the same time compared to an all-metal design, and the amca’s percentage employment of C-FCs is one of the highest in an aircraft. Apart from making the aircraft much lighter compared to conventional metal airframed aircraft, There are also fewer joints and rivets, which increases the aircraft’s reliability and lowers its susceptibility to structural fatigue cracks. The majority of these are bismaleimide (BMI) and composite epoxy material. The aircraft will be the first mass-produced aircraft to include structural nanocomposites, namely carbon nanotube reinforced epoxy. Stressed ducts in s-shape are locked with airframe with the loaded bulkheads which are made of composite materials spanning the aircraft from air intake to engine shafts Stealth The design of the AMCA includes a very small radar cross-section & will also have serpentine like air intakes, internal arsenal as well as the state-of-the-art radomes in order to enhance its stealth feature. The design will also be supplemented through radar-absorbing composites as well as paints. The front end of AMCA comprising the cockpit and radome as well as the air intakes—seems much closer to the Boeing X-36 unmanned research aircraft. The rest has resemblance to F22 raptor. AMCA also optimized to reduce acoustic signature as well as reduced visibility to the naked eye. The design based stealth characteristics of the aircraft will include Optimized edge matching, Airframe shaping, Body confirming antennae, A low IR signature all the way through nozzle design Role AMCA’s primary purpose is Multi-role fighter capability which includes Air superiority mission, Attack mission, Strike role, Precision targeting, Interceptor, and Bombing mission. As AMCA is intended to replace Sepecat Jaguar and Dassault Mirage 2000 which are assigned role of Multi-role aircraft with mainly Fighter bomber role. It will fill the role along with the Attack aircraft role as it is also going to replace Mikoyan MiG-27 and Mikoyan MiG-23. As the aircraft has the capability to launch missile at Super sonic speed, it will be assigned to Carry out Precision strike. Nuclear Strike would be also carry out by the aircraft as the role would be inherited from Dassault Mirage 2000. As a Multi-role fighter, it will carry a Dedicated advance equipment to carry out SEAD missions and Destruction of Enemy Air Defenses(DEAD) missions which will contribute up to 30 % of its mission profile. Radar The AMCA will incorporate an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) which, the official illustrations indicate, is also mechanically steerable. This is an advantage as the beam manoeuvrability of an AESA can be stretched to a broader detection area. The AMCA may host new generation GaN (Gallium Nitride) based AESA for superior detection and performance. Some information’s reported that, state owned LRDE is initiated a project to develop a small size air borne X band GaN based AESA radar for AMCA. LRDE already shows a model of AESA radar in last year’s Aero India exhibition. The use of GaN will give significant benefits of power density, efficiency, and bandwidth to AMCA. Furthermore the use of GaN will solve substantial system-related issues, such as the need for higher operating voltages, more efficient heat removal techniques, and high reliability The under development Uttam AESA radar intended for Tejas LCA is not good for fifth generation fighters like AMCA. It’s reported earlier that, India and Israel working for a joint project to develop a GaN based AESA for fighter jets. However due to the importance of the program the information’s are highly classified. The Uttam is GaAs ( Gallium Aresenide) based radar. Sensor The infrared based systems like IRST, missile warning systems, laser warning system also added internally in the AMCA. The IRST sensors are placed in all sides of the AMCA to provide full angle coverage like in Rafale and F 35. The proposed IRST system is work similar to the F 35’s EOTS who shares the information’s to friendly units like via the satellite and highly secured data links. AMCA also comes with self protection jammer system to jam enemy radar guided missiles from both air and ground. electronic counter measure systems to confuse the infrared guided missiles and a radar warning receiver too added to detect enemy radar frequency’s. The Senor suites in AMCA led by the LRDE and BEL which include many private and foreign contributes. Propulsion and Avionics AMCA is a twin-engines aircraft which is powered by 2X GTRE k9 + or K 10 engine that can capable of producing 11-Kn-125Kn thrust each.The aircraft has a maximum take off weight is 29 tonnes:2 tonnes of internal weapons and 4 tonnes of internal fuel.It can achieve maximum speed of 2.5+ Mach (2665 + Km/h) at altitude and Mach 1.2 at sea level and have a cruise speed of Mach 1.6 at supercruise.The AMCA would have range of 2800 km and climb at the altitudes @ 13,716m/min. The HAL AMCA has integrated with latest avionics suite which include AESA radar,Integrated avionics systems,Helmet Mounted Display,Datalink capabilities,IRST,E/O Targeting System (EOTS),Multi-functional integrated radio electronics system (MIRES),ECM Suite,Laser-based counter-measures against infrared missiles,IRST for airborne targets,Ultraviolet warning sensors and Targeting pod. Overall AMCA looks close to F-22 with a faceted shape making up the fuselage. The single-seat cockpit will seat behind a short nose cone assembly with angled, rectangular intakes fitted to either side and aft of the cockpit position. These openings will aspirate the twin turbofan engine arrangement found at the extreme aft section of the aircraft, arranged in a side-by-side formation. The main wingplanes will be set a midships and aft while being completed in a symmetrical trapezoidal form. The horizontal tailplanes will be featured directly aft of the mainplanes. Its weapons bay will be installed at the airframe’s center mass, slightly ahead of midships. Probably AMCA will have almost similar aerodynamic and energy – maneuverability performance like F22 raptor. The incorporation 3D thrust vectoring make AMCA extreme maneuverable. AMCA also can with stand departure resistants at a similar level like in F22. Armaments The armaments includes 23 mm GSh-23 cannon gun and 8 hardpoints in stealthy configuration and 12 maximum hardpoints id non stealth load.The aircraft is mounted with Astra missile for long range BVRAAM combat ,Python 5 all aspect short range missile and Vympel R-73 short/visual range combat missile. Protection and self repair AMCA will boost capabilities such as Self-protection and self-repair with the help of self-diagnosing and self-healing by distributing the work load to other system from affected to non-affected system. Protection would be provided with the use of Nanotechnology to produce advance composite materials to withstand higher resistance to damage and therefore reducing the damage surface area. Chairman of DRDO D.r. V.K Saraswat confirmed that aircraft will use Self Repairing Flight Control Capability”, will be used in the aircraft to automatically detect failures or damage in its flight control surfaces, and using the remaining control surfaces, calibrate accordingly to retain controlled flight. It’s Reported the AMCA will be ready by early 2020 or before and HAL starts flying the first flight of fully developed AMCA by 2021. with the initial low rate initial production by 2024. And the air force gets the first AMCA squad by 2025. If all things goes per schedule The post HAL AMCA India’s fifth generation fighter update appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

Brahmos II :- India’s Future Hypersonic Cruise Missile

Source:-Brahmos II :- India’s Future Hypersonic Cruise Missile Russia && India are apparently testing the scramjet air breathing engine on its new BrahMos-II hypersonic cruise missile as a prelude to this weapon’s first test flight in 2020. Recently Russia successfully carried out the first test firing of a hyper sonic version of Brahmos missile in Russia. Russian sources indicated that the test was successful and the missile flew at the speed of Mach 6. The test carried out from a land-based testing range, which could be followed by multiple launches in coming days, said a Russian official to RT.com This speed is over double that of the current operational version of BrahMos, BrahMos-I, which is in service with the armed forces. Hypersonic weapons are missiles and aircraft capable of reaching speeds of Mach 5 and more – or five times the speed of sound. They are extremely difficult to intercept due to their overwhelming speed and maneuvering capabilities. BrahMos-II will confer on India a major strategic advantage in mountain warfare against China. The missile is designed to select targets hidden behind a mountain range. The hypersonic weapon’s immense destructive power will result from kinetic energy. An object striking a target at 6 Mach will generate 36 times the force of an object of the same mass striking the target at 1 Mach. This phenomenon makes hypersonic weapons well suited to attacking hardened or deeply buried targets such as bunkers or nuclear and biological-weapon storage facilities. WHAT MAKES Brahmos 2 Aka ZIRCON LETHAL The concept, though, is surprisingly simple. As the missile – or whatever vehicle the scramjet is attached to – accelerates through the air, the engine begins to suck in oxygen. Stored fuel, such as hydrogen, is then mixed with the oxygen and burned before being accelerated and pumped out through a nozzle. “But If you ask the question, how hard is it? The answer is, it’s really hard”,It’s not a matter of simply taking a supersonic thing and flying it a little bit faster. The physics work against you, the temperatures get higher, everything really does get harder.” Russia && India is developing a special and secret fuel formula to enable the BrahMos-II to exceed Mach 5. WHEN WILL INDIA HAVE ITS OWN HYPERSONIC MISSILE Russia may have taken the lead in developing a hypersonic missile, but India is not far behind. India is developing a second generation BrahMos-II missile is collaboration with Russia. The missile will use the same scramjet technology that Zircon has. The BrahMos-II is expected to have a range of 600 km. The missile is expected to be ready for testing by 2020. Brahmos II Characteristics Speed : Mach 7 Range : 290 kilometer warhead : 300 kg, conventional, shrapnel, or armor piercing First flight : 2016 unconfirmed Induction : 2019 Launch platform: Ship, as the first phase The post Brahmos II :- India’s Future Hypersonic Cruise Missile appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

INS Vishal design phase close to complete

Source:-INS Vishal design phase close to complete The Indian Navy’s next generation aircraft carrier dubbed as INS Vishal’s designing phase almost close to completion with few other decisions still on pending, the major subsystem in the carrier, that’s the aircraft launching system and the length of the aircraft carrier is completed. Both US and India will soon finalize the propulsion system too. The proposed design shows the aircraft carrier has an length of some 280 meters, with two EMAL launchers developed by the US major General Atomics, some also confirms the aircraft also features the advanced arresting gear made by the same GA. Those systems can capable to launch and arrest lighter aircraft like surveillance UAV to heavy fighter jets like F 35. India also plans to buy the F 18 E/F and the F 18 G from another US major Boeing, who is currently in talks with Indian government to start a assembly line in India, to supply Indian air force, However details also emerged that the INS Vishal carries the F 35 C once the carrier is ready. Those carriers are smart nowadays capable to launch small aircraft’s like UAV’s to heavy fighter jets and support planes like E 2D for airborne early warning. India earlier operated a assisted launching carrier INS Vikrant junior, who decommissioned in 1997. It’s the second time that IN going to operate the assisted launching carriers. INS Vishal comes with two launching points, to simultaneously launch two aircraft’s, both can capable to launch aircraft’s weighing from one ton to 32 tons. The F 35 C is one of the heaviest fighter can be operated from aircraft carrier whose MTOW reported close to 32 tons. The IN’s current MiG 29 K’s MTOW reported at some 24 tons. More weight means more power and weapon carrying capability. EMLAS is the better replacement for current generation steam catapults operated by both US and French Navy’s today. The EMAL has lower operating costs, require fewer people to operate, improve catapult performance and expand the range of manned and unmanned aircraft that the aircraft carrier can launch. The INS Vishal almost close to the same length of current INS vikramaditya, both will have the length of some 280 meters. however performance wise the Vishal is far better than the vikramaditya. The INS Vishal might comes with the displacement of some 50-60,000 tonnages only. Since the EMAL requires less space and power. By assumption the aircraft can carry some 40 aircraft’s, which include two to four E 2D AEW planes, and additionally 10 to 12 ton helicopters like S 70 and EC 725, the capacity is almost similar to the current French carrier Charles de Gaulle. The specifications are more enough for the Indian Navy, to act as a force multiplier. It’s the propulsion system issue is the only problem yet to be sorted out, Once it was cleared US and India will select a Shipyard to start constructing the carrier. The actual progress behind the propulsion based on nuclear reactor unavailable so far to public release. It’s believed the issue to be sorted out before the fall of 2016. Source:- Life of solider The post INS Vishal design phase close to complete appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

To Secure Its Future, India Must Look Towards The Sea

Source:-To Secure Its Future, India Must Look Towards The Sea For centuries, the psyche of India has been that of a landlocked country. This is partly due to its history, recent wars and the resultant political thought and defence structures. But now, India has to face the truth: turn to the sea or face a very constricted future. The reason is simple and known to most people through this statistic: two-thirds of planet earth is water and 90 percent of the world’s trade flows through the ocean. What lies beneath is becoming increasingly contested. This contest is sharpening thanks to multiple shifts in the world, both economic and political. The biggest of these is the ascent of China simultaneous with the US’s turning inwards and the consequent shifts in the world’s geopolitical architecture – a structure that has largely remained unchanged since the end of the Second World War, and which has entrenched Western interests. The choppiness created by these changes is visible in the Indian Ocean region through China’s increased naval capacity and territorial ambitions. Its exaggerated historical claims are piggybacking on its economic heft. The maritime component of the ‘One Belt One Road’ (OBOR) that connects Europe, Asia and Africa to Beijing through transport links is being seen as the most overt manifestation of China’s global ambitions. But it could also be seen as a last-ditch attempt by China to keep social stability by salvaging a slowing economy – one plagued by an infrastructure overdose and overcapacity in key sectors like steel and cement, and a real estate bubble. The outbreak of violence in West Asia during the past decade adds to the sea-borne challenge India faces. That regional dependency is acute: 6 million Indians work in the region, remitting $33 billion home annually, and Delhi secures 65 percent of its total crude oil imports from West Asia. It’s not all bad, for the situation also opens up diplomatic space for India as old alliances loosen, the threat of terrorism becomes more widely felt and the role of Pakistan is acknowledged. One of these opportunities is the financial and political ‘mainstreaming’ of Iran to the west and Myanmar to the east, after the end of Western sanctions. It is also a challenge because both countries are pivots in China’s OBOR and Beijing has established itself in the ecosystem of these territories. For instance, in Myanmar, oil and natural pipelines have already started pumping hydrocarbons to China. In Iran, Beijing connected Tehran to the eastern Chinese province of Zhejiang through a 10,400 km-railway line. The first train arrived in Tehran in February. For India, these developments mean that policy makers should keep a sharp eye on the eastern and western seaboards, while fast-tracking projects in Myanmar and Iran, to quickly convert goodwill into influence there. These projects include the Kaladan Multimodal Transit Transport that connects Kolkata with Myanmar’s Sittwe port and then links it to India’s remote north eastern state of Mizoram. Development of the Chabahar port in Iran will help Delhi secure the Iranian oil needed to keep its economy running, and gain access to both Afghanistan and energy-rich Central Asia. Indian policymakers are now more alert to the challenges and opportunities. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has sought peace and economic integration with Bangladesh by ratifying the land boundary in May 2015. And he has invested a lot of diplomatic capital and time in his visits to Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and the tour of three island nations in the Arabian Sea in the past year. To the east, India has progressively engaged with the ASEAN countries, Japan and Australia – which are feeling the heat of China’s rising ambition – by conducting naval exercises and bilateral exchanges. Japanese premier Shinzo Abe has invested equal energy in trying to change his country’s pacifist orientation from post the Second World War, while expanding the strategic element of his country’s bilateral relations with India, all in order to confront Chinese aggressiveness. If India wants to be a net security provider in the region, it can’t realize this goal without having a bigger blue water navy. To build this naval strength, India needs to keep increasing Navy allocation from the present level of 15 percent of the defence budget. A possible model for this could be the US Navy that has sought 30 percent of the 2016 US proposed defence budget of $585.3 billion. This is progress – but slow progress. Completing existing commitments will create the space for new sea-facing opportunities, both strategic and commercial. Only then will India be able to maintain its strategic autonomy in the Indian Ocean, while being more than just a counter balance to China. Source:- Gateway House The post To Secure Its Future, India Must Look Towards The Sea appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.

At sea with ageing fleet, cost & time overruns

Source:-At sea with ageing fleet, cost & time overruns The Indian Navy, considered a vital instrument of diplomacy, power projection and essential for safeguarding the country’s manifold maritime interests, is suffering from serious time and cost overruns. The country can ill afford these deficiencies, especially with China’s increased presence in the Indian Ocean. ON April 11, Ashton Carter became the first US Secretary of Defence to visit an aircraft carrier belonging to the Indian Navy when he was taken on board the 44,400-tonne Soviet-origin INS Vikramaditya. While New Delhi’s intention was to showcase the Navy’s currently largest and most powerful vessel, mandarins in South Block cannot be unaware of the serious deficiencies that afflict the Indian Navy, considered a vital instrument of diplomacy, power projection and credible second-strike capability in the event of a nuclear war. In many ways INS Vikramaditya’s pre-induction history and current status serves as a microcosm to what ails the Navy. Firstly, like the Army and the Air Force, the Navy is similarly largely import-dependent for all its submarines and fighter and maritime reconnaissance aircraft, most helicopters, a few ships and for many sub systems, including missiles. The Navy continues to suffer delays in most inductions while remaining dependent on foreign vendors for requirements ranging from spares, servicing and mid life upgrades, to name a few. Inefficient ship-building yards and manpower-related problems have added to the woes. In the case of INS Vikramaditya, a helpless New Delhi was forced by Moscow to renegotiate the contract to a significantly higher $2.3 billion. The purchase of 45 Russian-made MiG-29K fighters for the aircraft carrier cost another $2 billion. Secondly, considerable cost and time overruns in almost all production and developmental projects continue to be a cause of serious concern. INS Vikramaditya entered service in June 2014, almost 10-and-a-half years after the purchase contract was signed. Resultantly, the MiG-29Ks, first inducted four years prior in February 2010, had begun depreciating well before they could be operationalised. Further, just as the Navy functioned with a solitary aircraft carrier (INS Viraat) for 19 years — from 1995 to 2014 — it is again back to being a one-carrier Navy, with the 56-year-old INS Viraat now practically retired. A second aircraft carrier, currently under indigenous development (INS Vikrant), is already running six years behind schedule and is at least another three years from entering service. Meantime, its cost has risen six-fold — from Rs 3,261 crore to Rs 19,341 crore. The three Kolkata-class stealth guided missile Destroyers, originally due for commissioning in 2009 and 2010, were inducted after a five to seven years’ delay in 2014, 2015 and 2016 — at an over three-fold cost increase from Rs 3,580 crore to Rs 11,662 crore. Two of the four Kamorta-class anti-submarine warfare corvettes, originally scheduled for delivery in 2009, 2011 and 2012, were only delivered in 2014 and 2016 — with two more still awaited. The cost, meanwhile, has more than doubled from Rs 3,051 crore to Rs 7,852 crore. Also running behind schedule is the construction of five offshore patrol vessels, 80 interceptor craft and four attack crafts. The worst is the submarine fleet, considered critical to complete the nuclear triad and to accompany the Navy’s aircraft carriers among other tasks. The Navy’s conventional submarines, which regularly require breaking surface to charge its batteries thus rendering it vulnerable to detection each time, is down to just 13, with 12 of them between 22 and 30 years old. Even the solitary youngest submarine is already 16 years old. The Navy has not inducted a single submarine since 2000, even though the government in 1999 cleared a 30-year plan to induct 24 submarines by 2030. The Navy will get its first conventional submarine (French-origin Scorpene) only in 2017, with five more by 2021 with no further induction decided and, therefore, 18 short of the original plan. India’s indigenously developed nuclear-powered submarine, INS Arihant, is undergoing sea trials since December 2014. Two more are currently under construction, while six more have been cleared for construction for which, however, no deadline has been fixed. China, in contrast, operates about 60 submarines, nine of them nuclear-powered. The Navy has a shortfall of 61 integral helicopters on its ships; has no deep submergence rescue vehicles for rescuing sailors from submarines; and is dependent on the US in case a submarine is disabled deep under water. Most existing vessels are ageing and would necessitate decommissioning in the next 10 years. The current six mine sweepers, for example, are over 25 years old. Besides, it has suffered an unprecedented frequency of accidents and deaths a staggering 59 accidents between June 2007 and November 2014, 14 of which occurred in 2014 alone and 24 between 2012 and 2014. The most serious was the sinking of INS Sindhurakshak, a Russian-made kilo class submarine, following a series of blasts in the torpedo section in August 2013. The shortage of officers and sailors is, respectively, almost 1,600 (14.5 per cent) and 1,11,000 (17 per cent). The Navy is finding it hard to maintain a force level of 138 ships and submarines approved by the government 52 years ago in 1964, let alone increase levels to 198 ships and submarines approved by the defence acquisition council in 2012. All this is hardly comforting for a 21st- century Navy, with a maritime responsibility that includes safeguarding a 7,517- km coastline, island territories across two seas at considerable distances from the mainland and a 2 million sq km exclusive economic zone; maintaining sea lanes of communication to ensure safe passage of ocean trade which constitutes 95 per cent by volume and 77 per cent by value. In addition to these maritime responsibilities, the Navy also has to conduct anti-piracy and anti-terrorist operations and a wide range of maritime emergencies. Of course, it also has to counter the increased Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean region. Source:- The Tribune India The post At sea with ageing fleet, cost & time overruns appeared first on Indian Defence Update.Indian Defence Update - Please Visit Our Site For Latest News On Indian Army, Navy and Airforce Indian Defence Update.